Category Archives: recruiting

Solve a Puzzle, Get a Tech Job

British carmaker Jaguar Land Rover announced yesterday that it would be recruiting 5,000 people this year, including 1,000 electronics and software engineers.

While that announcement alone may not seem worthy of inclusion in the esteemed pages of the New York Times, how the upscale carmaker is conducting this recruitment process certainly is: The paper reports the carmaker “wants potential employees to download an app with a series of puzzles that it says will test for the engineering skills it hopes to bring in.”

While traditional applicants will still be considered, people who successfully complete the app’s puzzles will “fast-track their way into employment,” said Jaguar Land Rover, which is owned by Tata Motors of India. Applicants are invited to explore a garage belonging to the band Gorillaz and assemble a Jaguar sports car. Once they complete that stage, they are confronted with a series of code-breaking puzzles.

The Times notes that the carmaker’s recruitment effort is “unusual but far from unique,” adding that increasing numbers of employers are using alternative methods to hire workers. The story goes on to cite Marriott hotel and a British communications agency as other examples of organizations changing their recruitment techniques to keep up with the pace of change in today’s marketplace.

“The nature of jobs is changing, and what we should be looking for is changing,” Barbara Marder, senior partner at Mercer, a consultancy that specializes in human resources and has a stake in Pymetrics, a company that makes games for recruitment purposes, told the Times. She added that such games had not been in use long enough to provide ample data on their effectiveness. Still, she said, they could be more useful than traditional tests and interviews.

Games offer additional benefits, she said, explaining: “They’re very attractive in attracting candidates and keeping the short attention span of millennials. That’s not an insignificant challenge.”

 

Of Job Interviews and Stress

Do you remember your last job interview? Was the experience a pleasant one? If you’re like most people, the answers are A: yes, and B: No. After all, regardless of how nicely you’re treated during the interview — a receptionist who greets you warmly by name, interviewers who appear to have fully read your resume, etc. — the fact is that this is a process that may determine not only your livelihood but also who you’ll be spending the majority of your waking hours with (and yes that sounds sad, but it is what it is). So considering all that, it may not be surprising if even the memory of the experience makes your heart beat a little faster and your palms get a bit sweaty.

All of this can be a good thing, said psychologist Kelly McGonigal during her keynote presentation earlier this week at Indeed Interactive in Austin, Tex. The conventional wisdom about stress is that too much of it leads to overeating, high blood pressure and a host of other maladies and behaviors that will ultimately result in a shortened lifespan, said McGonigal, a Stanford University researcher whose 2014 TED Talk titled “How to Make Stress Your Friend” garnered nearly 5 million views. However, stress is and always has been a part of life, she said — it’s how we choose to respond to it that determines its effect on our health.

“The advice we typically give to each other during a really stressed-out moment, like before a job interview, is ‘Take a deep breath,’ ” she said to attendees packing the ballroom at the Austin J.W. Marriott. “Yes, most people say that — and they’re wrong. A better piece of advice is, what if instead of trying to suppress the stress, we view it as energy that we can harness?”

McGonigal cited research conducted at the University of Wisconsin that tracked 30,000 Americans over the course of eight years. The researchers found that subjects with a lot of stress had a 43-percent increased risk of dying — but only if they believed stress was harmful.

“The people who perform best under pressure aren’t actually calm, but they view that stress as energy that can actually help them,” she said. “Your body and brain have a whole repertoire of stress responses, many of which are helpful and healthy. If you choose to embrace that anxiety, it actually transforms the biology of fear into the biology of courage.”

People tend to perform better when they’re told prior to a major event that feeling anxious is natural and that it can actually help them — not just in job interviews, said McGonigal, but in a wide range of activities such as athletic competitions, during tests and even in karaoke contests (something to keep in mind for your next happy hour).

“Not everyone does this naturally, although everyone has the capability to do this,” she said. “You can access the biology of resilience in stressful situations.”

Researchers at Columbia Business School conducted an experiment in which participants were put through a mock job interview by interviewers who’d been coached to be very cold, give no positive feedback whatsoever to the interviewees  and interrupt them regularly, said McGonigal. One group of interviewees was shown a video prior to the interview that explained the damaging effects that stress can have on health. The other group was shown  a video about how stress can be performance-enhancing and can help people emerge from a difficult situation stronger and better-equipped to handle adversity. The participants who saw the positive video experienced higher levels of hormones (oxytocin, in particular) that help us react positively to stressful experiences, she said.

In another experiment focused on job applicants, this one at the University of Michigan, researchers counseled one group of participants to think about how — if they got the job — it would allow them to help others or express their values in a way that would contribute to the greater good. Members of this group were much more likely to be rated by people who watched the interviews as  confident and competent and as someone they would like to work with than those who hadn’t received the pre-interview counseling.

So, what’s the lesson here for recruiters and talent-acquisition leaders?

“Every step of the hiring process can be viewed as contributing to the community, values and mission of the organization,” said McGonigal. “One could view your own role as part of that, of helping to connect people with the organization and the community that it’s part of. And every moment that you choose to view as the next step in bringing this about also helps create a psychologically healthy state for you.”

Hurting for Talent in HR?

In the never-ending quest to boost HR’s profile in the C-suite, CHROs must first surround themselves with top-notch talent in their own departments, according to new research from Korn Ferry.

The problem, the same survey finds, is that serious talent gaps exist within the HR suite.

The Los Angeles-based advisory firm recently polled 189 chief human resource officers, finding that “as the HR function becomes more strategic and high-profile, HR professionals need to step up their game when it comes to business insights and achieving results,” according to a Korn Ferry statement.

More specifically, CHROs were asked to name the skills they find are most lacking as they search for human resources talent.

A mere 4 percent reported having no difficulty finding the necessary skills to round out their HR teams. Otherwise, respondents said:

  • Business acumen (41 percent)
  • Ability to turn strategy into action (28 percent)
  • Intellectual horsepower (10 percent)
  • Analytical skills (7 percent)
  • Diversified experience (6 percent)
  • Relational skills (3 percent)
  • Technical skills (1 percent)

Of course, the role of the HR function, and the CHRO, is much more complex than it was even five short years ago, says Joseph McCabe, vice chairman of Korn Ferry’s Global Human Resources Center of Expertise.

“Disruptors such as digitization and globalization are creating an environment of constant organizational change,” says McCabe. “HR leaders must understand the business challenges that occur as a result of these disruptions, including the impact on the business strategy, and be able to quickly adapt and act.”

The Korn Ferry poll allowed respondents the chance to do a bit of self-examination as well, asking CHROs what competencies were most important to helping them handle the ever-changing environment in which they operate.

By far, the most common response was “tolerance for ambiguity,” cited by 52 percent of the CHROs surveyed. Twenty percent pointed to the confidence to make bold, yet informed decisions as most critical, followed by the ability to sustain analytical thinking and motivate others (11 percent) and the ability to listen to and accommodate others’ methods (6 percent).

The study finds that a failure to cultivate both “hard” and “soft” skills could be costly for a CHRO; a reality that respondents seem to recognize. Indeed, when asked to name the top reason that a CHRO would get fired from an organization, the largest percentage (37) said “personality issues/inability to work well with or lead others,” with 34 percent reporting that an “inability to direct connect HR efforts to tangible business outcomes” would be the most likely cause for being let go.

“Today’s CHROs are judged both on what they do and how they get things done,” says McCabe. “While it’s critical that HR must act quickly to adapt to changing business strategy, it’s also important to align their team and other key leaders to foster engagement and a shared vision.”

Breaking Into the Boy’s Club

Whether it’s a result of not seeking out women workers or not being able to attract them, or a combination of factors, some fields remain heavily male-dominated.

Many of these same industries—construction, automotive and trucking, to name just three—are facing a worker shortage fueled in no small part by scores of retiring baby boomers.

It seems that at least some of these traditionally male-centric sectors are focusing more closely on female talent in an effort to fill the vacuum.

Earlier this month, for example, the Iron Workers Union and the Ironworker Management Progressive Action Cooperative Trust began offering a new paid maternity leave benefit to members.

According to a statement from the organization, it is “the first to introduce a generous paid maternity leave benefit in the building trades,” where adequate paid maternity leave is “virtually unheard of.”

The new policy includes six months of pre-delivery maximum benefit and six to eight weeks of post-delivery benefit, according to the union. In addition, members are eligible for up to six weeks of paid leave after the birth of the child and two additional weeks for Cesarean deliveries, regardless of what was covered pre-delivery.

The Washington Post recently detailed the new Iron Workers Union policy, noting that all baby boomers will be over the age of 65 by the year 2029, which means one-fifth of the U.S. population will have reached retirement age.

Iron Workers President Eric Dean feels that offering benefits such as paid maternity leave finds the organization well-positioned for the ongoing boomer exodus.

“The whole world is suffering the baby boomer retirement tsunami,” Dean told the Post. “All the construction trades are in competition for capable people. Wouldn’t it be a distinct advantage for us to be the first?”

These trades have other issues to contend with, of course.

The same article points out that “millennials, the workers who would replace [boomers], aren’t as interested in pursuing careers in the trades.” Enrollment in vocational education has dropped over the last three decades as well, according to the Post, adding that the current opioid epidemic “has zapped some of the male workforce, because men are more likely than women to both use and overdose on illicit drugs.”

Other fields with predominantly male workforces—such as the trucking and automotive technician sectors—see such factors draining their applicant pools as well.

“There’s a shortage of high-end, heavily trained individuals who can do diagnostic work,” Tony Molla, vice president of the Automotive Service Association, told the Post. “We’re graduating about 30,000 new technicians a year, mostly men, but that’s not enough to keep up with attrition.”

In response, automakers have been funneling more corporate sponsorships to groups that work to recruit female trainees, such as the Automotive Women’s Alliance Foundation and the Car Care Council Women’s Board, according to the paper. Meanwhile, some trucking companies have begun to hire “female driver liaisons” in addition to creating support groups geared toward female truckers, the Post reports.

Naturally, there’s no promise that these efforts will pay off in the form of more female workers in male-dominated industries. And there’s still the long-standing, problematic perception that women “aren’t cut out” for some work; a stigma that can be extremely difficult to shake for those who do pursue careers in certain fields. But there seems to be an acknowledgement in some corners that change is needed if these industries wish to survive, as Dean told the Post.

“We have to innovate,” he said, “if we want different results.”

A Costly Skills Gap

How much does it cost the average company when open job positions remain unfilled for 12 weeks or longer? Almost $1 million a year, according to a pair of CareerBuilder surveys released today. The surveys, which were conducted for CareerBuilder by Harris Poll late last year and from Feb. 16 to March 9 of this year, found that the average cost HR managers say they incur for having extended job vacancies is more than $800,000 annually. Nearly 60 percent of the employers surveyed report that they have job openings that stay vacant for 12 weeks or longer.

We’re not just talking those hard-to-fill computer science jobs, either. “The gap between the number of jobs posted each month and the number of people hired is growing larger as employers struggle to find candidates to fill positions at all levels within their organizations,” says CareerBuilder CEO Matt Ferguson. “There’s a significant supply and demand imbalance in the marketplace, and it’s becoming nearly a million-dollar problem for companies.”

Indeed, a supply imbalance appears to exist for a variety of occupations, including truck drivers, marketing managers, web developers, industrial engineers, sales managers, HR managers and information security analysts, CareerBuilder finds.

Two in three employers (67 percent) say they’re concerned about the skills gap, and more than half (55 percent) say these extended job vacancies are hurting their organizations. Forty-five percent say they lead to productivity loss, while 40 percent say they cause higher employee turnover, 39 percent cite lower morale, 37 percent mention lower quality work and 29 percent say the vacancies leave them unable to grow their business.

Not everyone agrees the “skills shortage” is real; some economists (and our HREOnline Talent Management columnist and Wharton School professor Peter Cappelli) argue that the real culprit is a reluctance by many employers to pay for the sort of workplace training programs that were commonly offered in the past. Nevertheless, plenty of other surveys also show that employers in a range of industries are contending with hard-to-fill positions, including the manufacturing industry. In fact, given President Trump’s stated desire to “make America great again” by, in part, bringing manufacturing jobs back to this country from overseas by imposing tariffs on foreign-made goods, some manufacturers are trying innovative ways to “grow” their own talent by reaching out to high schools and community colleges to ensure they’ll have talent on hand and won’t be caught short.

Using Data To Defend H-1B Visas

As the federal government this week began accepting H-1B visa applications for 2017, Trump administration officials sent new signals that they will more carefully scrutinize employer use of the popular tool for recruiting skilled workers.

Meanwhile, a new study disputes the idea — espoused by the president himself –that employers use H-1B visas to hire “cheap labor” from overseas, undercutting Americans who would like the jobs.

The study, by the job site Glassdoor, concluded that foreign workers with H-1B visas on average earn nearly 3 percent more than Americans holding comparable jobs. Overseen by Glassdoor chief economist Andrew Chamberlain, the analysis compared salaries reported on H-1B applications with those reported by Glassdor users for comparable jobs.

While a study in the 1990s suggested that wages for computer scientists were hurt by an influx of H-1B workers at the time, the current data show “there’s no evidence that H-1B workers are paid any less” than America counterparts today, Chamberlain writes.

Overall, the foreign workers earn 2.8 percent more, the study found.The pay gap varied by job title and location; for example,H-1B workers were more likely to earn less than their American counterparts in Washington, D.C. than in other major U.S job hubs.

But the program remains a target for critics, including many in the Trump administration, who say it hurts native-born workers by creating a back door for foreign applicants.UnderTrump, the federal government has begun to tighten regulations that govern the program. Last week, for example, officials said computer programming jobs, long a popular use forH-1B visas, would no longer automatically qualify.

It’s unclear what further restrictions may follow. But just this week immigration officials vowed to redouble enforcement efforts against employers that skirt the rules. “Too many American workers who are qualified, willing and deserving to work in these fields have been ignored or unfairly disadvantaged,”said a statement issued Monday by the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.

HR Automation is on the Way

We might never see the human touch completely leave the HR suite—it is the human resource department, after all—but new research suggests that automation is still going to significantly touch the function in the years to come.

The pace of automation in HR might be a bit slower than in other departments, though. In a survey of 719 HR managers and recruiters, CareerBuilder finds that, while more companies are turning to technology to address time-consuming and labor-intensive talent acquisition and management tasks that are susceptible to human error, a “significant proportion” of firms still rely on manual processes. For example, 34 percent of respondents said their companies don’t use technology automation to recruit candidates, while 44 percent don’t automate onboarding and 60 percent said they don’t automate human capital management activities for employees.

So, what is being automated within HR? According to the CareerBuilder study, most automation is centered around messaging, benefits and compensation, “but there is room to increase efficiencies across a variety of basic functions.” Among employers reporting that they automate at least one part of talent acquisition and management, 57 percent said they are automating employee messaging, with 53 percent and 47 percent saying the same about setting up employee benefits and payroll, respectively. In addition, 47 percent indicated that their organizations have automated background screening and drug testing.

Not surprisingly, the overwhelming majority (93 percent) of those whose companies have automated part of their talent acquisition and management processes say they’ve saved time and increased efficiency by doing so. Another 71 percent feel their organizations have improved the candidate experience by automating some processes, with 69 percent saying they’ve reduced errors and 67 percent reporting they’ve saved money and resources.

As organizations expand and add employees, “there’s a certain tipping point where things can no longer be managed efficiently and accurately by hand,” says Rosemary Haefner, CHRO at CareerBuilder, in a statement.

In order to successfully turn certain HR-specific tasks over to technology, “automation needs to be incorporated,” says Haefner, “so the HR team is free to focus on strategies versus tasks, and focus on building relationships with employees and candidates.”

As certain functions on teams become more automated, she says, “we’ll see those workers’ roles evolve and concentrate on the strategic, social and motivational components of HR that technology cannot address.”

 

 

Labor Market Continues to Tighten

The Bureau of Labor Statistics’ latest official employment report shows that businesses added 227,000 workers last month and the unemployment rate rose slightly to 4.8 percent, while the January national employment report from ADP’s Research Institute shows that private-sector employers adding 246, 000 jobs in January. The BLS report beat estimates by economists surveyed prior to its release by Reuters, who’d predicted the report would show a gain of 175,000 jobs.

The BLS and ADP employment reports are based on different methodologies, as CNBC’s Mark Fahey has noted: ADP counts all employees who are listed as active on an employer’s payroll, while the BLS surveys companies to tally employees who are actually paid. The reports differ by 40,000 about half the time, he wrote.

“The U.S. labor market is hitting on all cylinders and we saw small and mid-sized businesses perform exceptionally well,” said ADP Vice President Ahu Yildirmarz, the co-head of the payroll-processing giant’s Research Institute.

That’s not to say everything’s rosy on the employment front: Yesterday, outplacement consultancy Challenger, Gray & Christmas released its monthly jobs-cut report, which shows U.S. companies made nearly 46,000 job cuts in January — up 37 percent from December, when layoffs totaled 33,627.  However, while last month’s tally was the highest since last April (64,141), it’s a year-over-year improvement from January 2016, when employers announced 75,114 job cuts. This January’s job reductions were concentrated  in retail, which accounted for 49 percent of the job cuts, while retail and energy accounted for the much of the cuts in January 2016. Macy’s led the pack last month, announcing plans to close 68 of its stores and reduce its workforce by 10,000 workers.

“Overall, it was a solid holiday shopping season, but several retailers, including Macy’s, were unable to capitalize on stronger consumer confidence and spending,” said John A. Challenger, CEO of Challenger, Gray & Christmas.

ADP’s report, based on payroll data compiled from its 411,000 U.S. clients, shows that mid-sized businesses with between 50 and 499 employees added the most jobs in January (102,000). Large companies with 500 or more employees added 83,000 jobs, while small businesses (those with between 1 and 49 employees) added 62,000 positions.

“2017 got off to a strong start in the job market,” said Mark Zandi, chief economist of Moody’s Analytics, which helps ADP produce the report. “Job growth is solid across most industries and company sizes. Even the energy sector is adding to payrolls again.”

The BLS report finds that January’s robust employment numbers did not lead to increases in workers’ pay, with a year over year increase of 2.5 percent, compared to 2.9 percent in December.  A smaller-scale study,  Glassdoor’s Local Pay Reports — which monitor salaries for approximately 60 job titles across multiple industries — finds that the annual median base pay in the United States grew by 3.2 percent year over year in January to $51,360.

The positive sentiment on jobs is reflected in Gallup’s latest Job Creation Index, which measures U.S. workers’ perceptions of their workplace’s job climate. The JCP’s January score of +34 is the highest in its nine-year history, Gallup reports. That score compares to JCIs of -5 in January and April of 2009, when the country was in the depths of the Great Recession. Gallup bases the JCI on a daily, randomized sample of employed U.S. adults’ perceptions of their workplace’s hiring-and-firing activity.

Language Matters in Job Listings

In the New York Times this week, Claire Cain Miller wonders why more unemployed men aren’t going after jobs in the industries that are growing the most, such as healthcare.

One key reason behind “one of the biggest economic riddles today,” she writes, is that “these so-called pink-collar jobs are mostly done by women, and that turns off some men.”

Seattle-based software provider Textio recently dug a bit deeper into this conundrum, examining the terminology used in listings for the 14 fastest-growing jobs between the years 2014 and 2024. Their analysis found the way the descriptions of these roles are worded has led to an overabundance of unemployed men and plenty of jobs going unfilled at least partly because they’re perceived as being “women’s work.”

I’ll stop here to point out that the software Textio provides is designed to, in the company’s own words, “optimize job listings for more qualified and diverse applicants.” And, I’m not exactly sure how Textio is defining terms used in job listings as being “masculine” or “feminine.”

All that said, they found some interesting evidence to support the idea that language matters in job listings.

In its analysis, Textio found that the descriptions for these quickly-growing positions “used feminine language, which has been statistically shown to attract women and deter men,” according to the Times.

Consider home health aides, the number of which is projected by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to grow by 38 percent by the year 2024.

Currently, females hold 89 percent of these positions, according to the BLS. The job listings for home health aides—which Textio found to be the most “feminine”-sounding—commonly contain key words such as “sympathetic,” “care,” “fosters,” “empathy” and “families,” and are more appealing to female applicants, according to Textio’s analysis. Textio found the job descriptions and requirements for many other predominately female-held roles—nurse practitioner, genetic counselor and physician assistant, for instance—frequently include similar key words and phrases.

On the other hand are cartographers, who find themselves in “one of the few fast-growing jobs that is male-dominated,” according to the Times, noting that cartographer jobs are expected to increase by 29 percent in the next seven years. (Men currently represent 62 percent of the profession.) In evaluating the wording typically used to advertise these jobs, Textio found “masculine” terms like “manage,” “forces,” exceptional,” “proven” and “superior” were often thrown around.

But health aides need to be “exceptional” and “proven” too, writes Cain Miller, adding that the reverse is not automatically true.

“Cartographers don’t necessarily need to be ‘sympathetic’ or ‘focused on families’ to excel,” she says. “That might be one reason that women have historically entered male-dominated professions, like law or management, more than men have entered female-dominated ones, like teaching or nursing.”

As Cain Miller points out, some healthcare employers have tried to use more manly language in an effort to reverse this trend, “like talking about the ‘adrenaline rush’ of being an operating room nurse.” Rather than rewriting “feminine” job descriptions in hopes of appealing to male candidates, or vice versa, Textio suggests using more gender-neutral lingo.

The latter approach is more effective, according to Textio, which says replacing words such as “world-class” and “rock star” with terms like “premier” and “extraordinary” improved the candidate pool for a software developer position, for example. Textio also claims that more gender-neutral wording enables employers to fill jobs 14 days faster in comparison to posts with a gender bias, in addition to attracting a more diverse collection of applicants.

That makes sense. And, while the Textio analysis focuses primarily on the healthcare sector, it’s probably safe to say that taking this kind of tack could deepen the candidate pool in any number of industries—at a time when finding the necessary talent is becoming more and more difficult.

Job Candidates’ Strange Behavior

One job candidate told her interviewer that if he wanted to get to heaven, he’d hire her. Another asked where the nearest bar was located. Then there’s the candidate who  bragged about being in the local newspaper for allegedly stealing a treadmill from someone’s house. It’s that time of year again: CareerBuilder has released its annual list of the strangest interview mistakes hiring managers say they’ve witnessed while assessing job candidates, based on a survey conducted on its behalf late last year by Harris Poll among approximately 2,600 HR and hiring managers.

Some other examples of strange interview mistakes:

  • Candidate ate a pizza he brought with him (and didn’t offer to share).
  • The candidate asked to step away to call his wife to ask her if the starting salary was enough before he agreed to continue with the interview.
  • Candidate invited interviewer to dinner afterwards.
  • Candidate said her hair was perfect when asked why she should become part of the team.
  • Candidate ate crumbs off the table.
  • Candidate asked the interviewer why her “aura” didn’t like the candidate.

This year’s survey finds that half (51 percent) of employers say they know within the first five minutes of an interview whether a candidate is a good fit for an open position, virtually identical to the findings from last year’s survey (50 percent).

Of course, candidates are also scrutinizing their potential employers during the interview process, and some don’t like what they see. The Execu|Search Group’s 2017 Hiring Outlook, for example, finds that 34 percent of working professionals say their job interviewer could not convey the overall impact their role has on the company’s goals, and that 45 percent did not feel their interviewer made an effort to introduce them to the company culture.

And when it comes to strange experiences, think of the poor candidates who find themselves struggling to answer the bizarre “brainteaser” questions asked by some companies during job interviews, which was the subject of a  Glassdoor report last year. Among the more notable questions:

  • What would you do if you found a penguin in the freezer? (Trader Joes, position unspecified)
  • How would you sell hot cocoa in Florida? (J.W. Business Acquisitions, for a human resources recruiter position)
  • How many basketballs would fit in this room? (Delta Air Lines, for a revenue management co-op position), and:
  • Would you rather fight one horse-sized duck, or 100 duck-sized horses? (Whole Foods Market, for a meat cutter position)